GotPoetry.com > > Akkadian language
GotPoetry.com

Help
Toggle ContentToggle Content .:: Home :: Poems :: Workshop Forums :: Register :: Features ::.
Toggle Content MediaWiki Search
 

Toggle Content Menu

Toggle Content Paid Membership
Buy a paid membership and get more out of GotPoetry!

Advertise on the GotPoetry Advertising Network.

Akkadian language

Akkadian language

From Poetry Wiki

Jump to: navigation, search
colspan="3" style="text-align: center; font-size:110%; color: {{
#if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|black|1}}
white black}}; background-color: {{
#if:
black {{
 #if:
silver Template:Infobox Language/family-color}}

}};" |Akkadian {{

#if:lišānum akkadītum

lišānum akkadītum}}{{
 #if:
Template:Infobox Language/image

}}{{

  #if:
Template:Infobox Language/pronunciation}}
{{
#if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|black|1}}
Created by {{
 #if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|silver|1}}
Signed Spoken}} in}}: colspan="{{
#if:
1 {{
#if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|black|1}}
—{{
 #if:
Template:Infobox Language/creationdate

}}

Assyria and Babylonia}}{{
 #ifexpr:{{#if:Assyria and Babylonia|1|0}}+{{#if:Mesopotamia|1|0}}!=1
Template:Infobox Language/statesregion}}
{{
#if:100 CE
Language extinction Total {{
 #if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|silver|1}}
signers speakers}}}}: {{
#if:100 CE
100 CE {{
 #if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|silver|1}}
—}}}}{{
  #if:
Template:Infobox Language/rank}}
{{
#if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|black|1}}
Category (purpose) Language family}}: {{
#if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|silver|1}}
unknown {{
 #if:
constructed language Template:Infobox Language/genetic2}}}}{{
#if:Semitic

 Semitic
  {{
#if:East Semitic
East Semitic
   {{
#if:

    {{
#if:

     {{
#if:

      {{
#if:

       {{
#if:

        {{
#if:

         {{
#if:

          {{
#if:

           {{
#if:

            {{
#if:

             {{
#if:

              {{
#if:

               Akkadian
Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} Akkadian}} {{
#ifexpr:{{#if:Akkadian|1|0}} and {{#if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|silver|1}}|0|1}}

 Akkadian}}
}}{{
#if:
Template:Infobox Language/script}}{{
#if:
Template:Infobox Language/aposteriori}}{{
  1. ifexpr:{{#if:|1|0}} and {{#if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|black|1}}|1|0}}
Template:Infobox Language/agency {{
#if:
Template:Infobox Language/official}}}}
colspan="3" style="text-align: center; color: {{
#if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|black|1}}
white black}}; background-color: {{
 #if:
black {{
  #if:
silver Template:Infobox Language/family-color}}}};" |Language codes
ISO 639-1: {{
#if:
{{{iso1}}} none}}
ISO 639-2: colspan="{{
#if:
1 {{
 #if:
akk (B) {{
  #if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|silver|1}}
akk {{
   #if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|black|1}}
akk akk}}}}}}{{
    #if:
Template:Infobox Language/terminological}}
ISO/FDIS 639-3: {{
#ifexpr:{{#if:|1|0}} and {{#if:|1|0}}
{{
 #if:
variously either}}:Template:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelistTemplate:Infobox Language/codelist {{
 #if:
{{{lc1}}} — {{
  #if:
none [[{{{ll1}}}|]]}} [[]]}} {{#if:akk none none akk}} —}}}}}}{{#if:
The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian.
Enlarge
The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian.
Template:Infobox Language/map}}{{Infobox Language/{{
 #if:{{#ifeq:Template:Infobox Language/family-color|silver|1}}
signnotice IPA notice}}}}

Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. The earliest attested Semitic language, it used the cuneiform writing system derived ultimately from ancient Sumerian, an unrelated, non-Semitic language. The name of the language is derived from the city of Akkad, a major center of Mesopotamian civilization.

Contents

Varieties

Akkadian is divided into several varieties based on geography and historical period:

  • Old Akkadian - 2500 – 1950 BCE
  • Old Babylonian/Old Assyrian - 1950 – 1530 BCE
  • Middle Babylonian/Middle Assyrian - 1530 – 1000 BCE
  • Neo-Babylonian/Neo-Assyrian - 1000 – 600 BCE
  • Late Babylonian - 600 BCE – 100 CE

Writing system

Template:Ancient Mesopotamia Akkadian scribes wrote the language using cuneiform script, an earlier writing system devised by the Sumerians using wedge-shaped signs pressed in wet clay. As employed by Akkadian scribes the adapted cuneiform script could represent either (a) Sumerian logograms (i.e. picture-based characters representing entire words), (b) Sumerian syllables, (c) Akkadian syllables, or (d) phonetic complements. Cuneiform was in many ways unsuited to Akkadian: among its flaws was its inability to represent important phonemes in Semitic, including a glottal stop, pharyngeals, and emphatic consonants. In addition, cuneiform was a syllabary writing system — i.e. a consonant plus vowel comprised one writing unit — frequently inappropriate for a Semitic language made up of triconsonantal roots (i.e. three consonants minus any vowels).

Phonology

As far as can be told from the cuneiform orthography of Akkadian, several Proto-Semitic phonemes are lost in Akkadian. Proto-Semitic glottal and pharyngeal stops Template:Semxlit and fricatives Template:Semxlit are lost as consonants, either by sound change or orthographically, but they gave rise to a vowel quality e not known in Proto-Semitic. The interdental and the voiceless lateral fricatives (Template:Semxlit) merged with sibilants as in Canaanite, leaving 19 consonantal phonemes:

Template:Semxlit.
Consonants Voiced Voice-
less
Emphat. Nasal Liquids / Glides
Labial plosives Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA
Dental plosives Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA, Template:Semxlit Template:IPA
Sibilants Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA, Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA
Palatal approximant Template:Semxlit Template:IPA
Velar plosives Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA Template:Semxlit Template:IPA
Uvular fricative Template:Semxlit Template:IPA

There are four vowels, with distinctive vowel length:

Template:Semxlit

Akkadian grammar

Template:Stubsection

Akkadian is an inflected language, and as a Semitic language its grammatical features are highly similar to those found in Classical Arabic. It possesses two genders (masculine and feminine), distinguished in second person pronouns (you-masc., you-fem.) and verb conjugations; three cases for nouns and adjectives (nominative, accusative, and genitive); three numbers (singular, dual, and plural); and unique verb conjugations for each first, second, and third person pronoun.

Akkadian nouns are declined according to gender, number and case. There are three genders; masculine, feminine and common. Only a very few nouns belong to the common gender. There are also three cases (nominative, accusative and genitive) and three numbers (singular, dual and plural). Adjectives are declined exactly like nouns.

Akkadian verbs have thirteen separate root stems. The three basic modifications of the simple stem (numbered I, or called the Grundstamm, G-Stamm) are doubling of the second root-letter (II or Doppelungsstamm, D-Stamm), š-prefix (III or Š-Stamm) or n-prefix (IV or N-Stamm). A second series is created by infixing the syllable ta between the first two root letters, creating a generally reflexive set of stems. These two sets of four stems each are the most commonly used in Akkadian. A third set is created by the infixation of the syllable tan between the first two root letters. The final stem uses both the š-prefix and doubling of the second root letter. The stems, their nomenclature and examples of the third-person masculine singular permansive of the verb parāsum (root PRS: 'to decide, distinguish, separate') is shown below:

I.1Gparisthe simple stem, used for transitive and intransitive verbscorresponding to Arabic stem I (fa‘ala) and Hebrew qal
II.1Dpurrusgemination of the second radical, indicating the intensivecorresponding to Arabic stem II (fa‘‘ala) and Hebrew pi‘el
III.1Ššuprusš-preformative, indicating the causativecorresponding to Arabic stem IV (’af‘ala) and Hebrew hiph‘il
IV.1Nnaprusn-preformative, indicating the reflexive/passivecorresponding to Arabic stem VII (infa‘ala) and Hebrew niph‘al
I.2Gtpitrussimple stem with t-infix after first radical, indicating reciprocal or reflexivecorresponding to Arabic stem VIII (ifta‘ala) and Aramaic ’ithpe‘al
II.2Dtputarrusdoubled second radical preceded by infixed t, indicating intensive reflexivecorresponding to Arabic stem V (tafa‘‘ala) and Hebrew hithpa‘el
III.2Štšutaprusš-preformative with t-infix, indicating reflexive causativecorresponding to Arabic stem X (istaf‘ala) and Aramaic ’ittaph‘al
IV.2Ntitaprus
I.3Gtnpitarrussimple stem with tan-infix after first radical
II.3Dtnputarrusdoubled second radical preceded by tan-infix
III.3Štnš-preformative with tan-infix
IV.3Ntnitaprusn-preformative with tan-infix

Akkadian verbs usually display the tri-consonantal root, though some roots with two- or four-consonant roots also exist. There are three tenses: present, preterite and permansive. Present tense indicates incomplete action and preterite tense indicates complete action, while permansive tense expresses a state or condition and usually takes a particle.

Akkadian, unlike Arabic, has mainly regular plurals (i.e. no broken plurals), although some masculine words take feminine plurals. In that respect, it is similar to Hebrew.

Word order

Akkadian sentence order was Subject+Object+Verb (SOV), which sets it apart from most other ancient Semitic languages such as Arabic and Biblical Hebrew, which typically have a Verb-subject-object (VSO) word order. (Modern South Semitic languages in Ethiopia also have SOV order, but these developed within historical times from the classical SVO language Geez.) It has been hypothesized that this word order was a result of influence from the Sumerian language, which was also SOV. There is evidence that native speakers of both languages were in intimate language contact, forming a single society for at least 500 years, so it is entirely likely that a sprachbund could have formed. Further evidence of an original VSO or SVO ordering can be found in the fact that direct and indirect object pronouns are suffixed to the verb. Word order seems to have shifted to SVO/VSO late in the 1st millennium BC to the 1st millennium AD, possibly under the influence of Aramaic.

Akkadian literature

Template:See also

References

  • Bussmann, Hadumod (1996). Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-20319-8
  • Caplice, Richard (1980). Introduction to Akkadian. Rome: Biblical Institute Press. (1983: ISBN 8876534407; 1988, 2002: ISBN 8876535667)
  • Huehnergard, John (2005). A Grammar of Akkadian (Second Edition). Eisenbrauns. ISBN 1-57506-922-9
  • Marcus, David (1978). A Manual of Akkadian. University Press of America. ISBN 0-8191-0608-9
  • Mercer, Samuel A B (1961). Introductory Assyrian Grammar. New York: F Ungar. ISBN 0-486-42815-X
  • Soden, Wolfram von (1952). Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik. Analecta Orientalia 33. Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. (3rd ed.: ISBN 88-7653-258-7)

External links

ar:لغة أكادية ca:Accadi cs:Akkadština da:Akkadisk de:Akkadische Sprache el:Ακκαδική γλώσσα es:Idioma acadio eo:Akada lingvo eu:Akkadiko fr:Akkadien it:Lingua accadica he:אכדית li:Akkadisch nl:Akkadisch ja:アッカド語 no:Akkadisk pl:Język akadyjski pt:Língua acádia ru:Аккадский язык sk:Akkadčina fi:Akkadin kieli sv:Akkadiska ta:அக்காத் மொழி tr:Akatça

Toggle Content Paid Sponsor




GotPoetry - News for poets. Place to write.

GotPoetry is the most popular network of performance poets and poetry readings on the internet today.

Editors: John, Mamta and a cast of tens of others.
Publisher: John Powers

Content © 1998-2008
GotPoetry LLC. All rights reserved

Engine released under GNU GPL, Code Credits, Privacy Policy, Legal Notices

Search:
 
GotPoetry.com Web

Forums Search
Gallery Search
Advanced Search


Link to Full Archives
Link to all News Topics


Link for all submission options for this site.

Subscribe - Use an RSS reader to stay up to date with the latest news and posts from GotPoetry.

GotPoetry News RSS Feed

Subscribe with Yahoo!
Subscribe with Google

Other GotPoetry RSS Syndication -  You can syndicate other parts of our site using the following files:

Yesterday's Top News
Yesterday's Top Poems
Forums
New Photos
Blogs
Downloads
Featured Articles