Emperor Gaozong of Song China
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|Emperor Gaozong of Song China|
|Birth and death:||Jun. 12, 1107–Nov. 9, 1187|
|Family name:||Zhao (趙)|
|Given name:||Gou (構)</small>|
|Courtesy name (字):||Deji (德基)</small>|
|Dates of reign:||Jun. 12, 1127¹–Jul. 24, 1162²|
|Temple name:||Gaozong (高宗)|
|Never used short|
|Emperor Shouming Zhongxing|
Quangong Zhide Shengshen
Wuwen Zhaoren Xianxiao³
|General note: Dates given here are in the Julian calendar.|
They are not in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.
|1. Following the capture of his older half-brother Emperor Qinzong|
in January 1127 by the Jurchen invaders, was proclaimed emperor
on June 12, 1127 in the southern capital. Was deposed for
25 days between March 26 and April 20, 1129 by generals
Miao Fu (苗傅) and Liu Zhengyan (劉正彥). Restored, was
pursued by the Jurchen and was not in full control of Southern
China until the late 1130s.
2. Abdicated in favor of the son of a distant cousin whom he had
adopted. Granted himself the title Taishang Huang (太上皇)
and continued in practice to rule through the new emperor.
3. Final version of the posthumous name given in 1191.
Emperor Gaozong (June 12, 1107 – November 9, 1187), born Zhao Gou, was the tenth emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of the Southern Song. He reigned from 1127 to 1162. He fled south after the Jurchens overran Kaifeng in the Jingkang Incident, hence the beginning of the Southern Song dynasty 1127-1279. Gaozong re-established his seat of government in Lin'an (臨安; today's Hangzhou, 杭州).
Gaozong was the 9th son of Emperor Huizong and the younger half-brother of Emperor Qinzong. His mother was a concubine from the Wei (韋) family who later became empress dowager, and is known posthumously as Empress Xianren (顯仁皇后) (1080-1159).
During his reign, Jurchens often attacked the Southern Song empire. Initially, he used military officials such as Li Gang, Yue Fei, Han Shizhong and Yu Yunwen to hold the Jurchens at bay. However, after years of fighting and significant military success, Gaozong settled on a pacifist stance. One of the major reasons behind this was that Gaozong and the traitorous premier Qin Hui did not actually want the Song army to defeat the Jurchens, as this might result in Emperor Qinzong being restored to the throne. As a result, Gaozong and Qin plotted to frame Yue Fei for some ambiguous offence and had him put to death. General Han Shizhong was also dismissed from his military duties. Gaozong then signed the Treaty of Shaoxing with the Jurchens which further ceded huge amounts of territories to the Jurchens in the hope of appeasement.