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Shi Jing

Shi Jing

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Book of Songs (Arabic: Kitab al-Aghani) was also a book written by the 9th century Arab scholar Abu al-Faraj.

Shī Jīng (Template:Zh-cw), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. It comprises 305 poems, some possibly written as early as 1000 BC. It is divided into:

  • 160 folk songs (or airs - feng 風)
  • 74 minor festal songs (or odes - ya 小雅), traditionally sung at court festivities
  • 31 major festal songs (大雅), sung at more solemn court ceremonies
  • 40 hymns and eulogies (sòng - 頌;), sung at sacrifices to gods and ancestral spirits of the royal house.

The work is one of the 五經 WuJing, or Five Classics, canonized by the Han Dynasty, whose scholars framed the 305 poems as having been edited by Confucius from a total corpus of some three-thousand poems. The 305 poems had to be reconstructed from memory by classicists since the previous Qin dynasty had burned the poems along with other classical texts. (There are, in fact, a total of 308 poem titles that were reconstructed, but the remaining three poems only have titles without any extant text).

The poems are written in four character lines. The airs are in the style of folk songs, although the extent to which they are real folk songs or literary imitations is debated. The odes deal with matters of court and historical subjects, while the hymns blend history, myth and religious material.

Commentators have also given the Book of Songs a second tripartite division based on their use of literary figures and devices, into fu, bi and xing poems. Roughly:

fu (賦/赋) poems are those with a straightforward narrative content
bi (比) are those with explicit comparisons
xing (興/兴) are based on implied comparisons

Contents

Contents

Summary of groupings of ShiJing poems


GuoFeng

國風 [guo2 feng1] GuoFeng, aka "Lessons from the States" poems 001-160; 160 total
folk songs (or airs)
group char group name poem #s
01 周南 Odes of Zhou & South 001-011
02 召南 Odes of Shao & South 012-025
03 邶風 Odes of Bei 026-044
04 鄘風 Odes of Yong 045-054
05 衛風 Odes of Wei 055-064
06 王風 Odes of Wang 065-074
07 鄭風 Odes of Zheng 075-095
08 齊風 Odes of Qi 096-106
09 魏風 Odes of Wei 107-113
10 唐風 Odes of Tang 114-125
11 秦風 Odes of Qin 126-135
12 陳風 Odes of Chen 136-145
13 檜風 Odes of Kuai 146-149
14 曹風 Odes of Cao 150-153
15 豳風 Odes of Bin 154-160

XiaoYa

小雅 [xiao3 ya3] XiaoYa, aka "Minor Odes of the Kingdom" poems 161-234; 74 total
minor festal songs (or odes) for court
group char group name poem #s
01 鹿鳴 之什 Decade of Lu Ming 161-170
02 白華 之什 Decade of Baihua 170-175
03 彤弓 之什 Decade of Tong Gong 175-185
04 祈父 之什 Decade of Qi Fu 185-195
05 小旻 之什 Decade of Xiao Min 195-205
06 北山 之什 Decade of Bei Shan 205-215
07 桑扈 之什 Decade of Sang Hu 215-225
08 都人士 之什 Decade of Du Ren Shi 225-234

DaYa

大雅 [da4 ya3] DaYa, aka "Major Odes of the Kingdom" poems 235-265; 31 total
major festal songs (湮捇) for solemn court ceremonies
group char group name poem #s
01 文王之什 Decade of Wen Wang 235-244
02 生民之什 Decade of Sheng Min 245-254
03 蕩之什 Decade of Dang 255-265

Song

頌 [song4] Song, aka "Odes of the Temple & Altar" poems 266-305; 40 total
praises, hymns, or eulogies sung at spirit sacrifices
group char group name poem #s
01 周頌 Sacrificial Odes of Zhou1 266-296
01a -清廟之什 Decade of Qing Miao 266-275
01b -臣工之什 Decade of Chen Gong 276-285
01c -閔予小子之什 Decade of Min You Xiao Zi 286-296
02 魯頌 Praise Odes of Lu3 297-300
03 商頌 Sacrificial Odes of Shang1 301-305

note: alternative divisions may be topical or chronological (Legges): Song, DaYa, XiaoYa, GuoFeng

Sample

	Part 4: 頌 Song, Odes of the Temple & Altar
	Section 1: 周頌 Sacrificial Odes of Zhou
	Chapter 1: 周頌 清廟之什 Decade of Qing Miao

	266. 清廟 Qing Miao

		於穆清廟、肅雝顯相。
		濟濟多士、秉文之德。
		對越在天、駿奔走在廟。
		不顯不承、無射於人斯。

	Ah ! solemn is the ancestral temple in its pure stillness .
	Reverent and harmonious were the distinguished assistants ;
	Great was the number of the officers : --
	[All] assiduous followers of the virtue of [king] Wen .
	In response to him in heaven ,
	Grandly they hurried about in the temple .
	Distinguished is he and honoured ,
	And will never be wearied of among men .
note: see entry for King Wen of Zhou
Wikisource
Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Translations

  • The Book of Odes, in The Sacred Books of China, translated by James Legge, 1879
  • The Book of Songs, translated by Arthur Waley, edited with additional translations by Joseph R. Allen, New York: Grove Press, 1996.
  • ShiJing, translated by YunZhong Xu, edited by ShengZhang Jiang, Hunan, China: Hu Nan Chu Ban She, 1993.
  • The Shi King: The Old "Poetry Classic" of the New York: Paragon Book, 1969.
  • The Classic Anthology Defined by Confucius, translated by Ezra Pound, Cambridge: Harvard U Press, 1954.
  • The Book of Odes, translated by Bernhard Karlgren, Stockholm: The Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1950.

External links


Template:Four Books and Five Classics

Template:ChineseTextde:Buch der Lieder es:El clásico de la poesía fr:Classique des vers ko:시경 mk:Ши-кинг ja:詩経 pl:Shijing vi:Kinh Thi zh-yue:詩經 zh:诗经

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